The Painful Truth About "CHEMTRAILS"
Jerry E. Smith
I have been aggressively researching "chemtrails" since 1996. I first heard the phrase in 1995 and witnessed them in 1996 while working on my book "HAARP: The Ultimate Weapon of the Conspiracy." I devoted 100 pages to this subject in my next book on the subject: "WEATHER WARFARE: The Militarys Plan To Draft Mother Nature."
In "WEATHER WARFARE" I documented (from the open scientific and military literature and other mainstream sources) that there are indeed extremely high altitude atmospheric releases for scientific and military purposes (mainly releases of barium and aluminum). These are primarily used for Surveillance and Communications, such as for over-the-horizon radar and creating artificial radio bounce spots. These releases are at altitudes two or three times higher than commercial jet aircraft fly and do not leave visible "trails."
Jim Keith & I likewise proved the existence of covert low-level spraying operations in his book "BLACK HELICOPTERS OVER AMERICA: Strikeforce for the New World Order" (which I helped write, edit and research). These "on the deck" releases are largely biological in nature and may be aimed at drug eradication, population control or biological experimentation. They are conducted primarily from helicopters (not black, but a very dark green) at treetop level. Government agencies at all levels deny their existence, but credible, reliable eyewitness reports and physical evidence proved otherwise.
After over 10 years of digging for the facts I have concluded that while there is a possibility of involvement, the likelihood is that commercial jet aircraft are not a part of these operations. Yes, commercial jet aircraft, flying on special fuel, were considered as a possible way to mitigate global warming. However, those same scientific studies, such as those conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, which proposed using commercial jets, later abandoned the idea as doing more harm than good as commercial jetliners fly too low to make the idea work.
THE HIGH BYPASS TURBOFAN
The first generation of jet engines were used from the 1950s to the 1980s. The current generation began appearing in the early 80s and the conversion to them was completed by 1995 or earlier. The first generation jet engines had the appearance of a short cigar with the inlet nozzle and the outlet exhaust nozzles about the same size, about 3 feet in diameter. The new next generation jet looks a bit like a side-ways funnel, with the front nozzle opening about 6 times larger than the exhaust in the back, with a tapered cowling running from the large opening in front to the small one in the back. Inside that cowling, at the front, is the "High Bypass Turbofan." It is like a turbocharger add-on for a car. It pumps in extra air into the jet engine. But most of the air flows around and past the engine, between the engine and the cowling. This maintains a constant sea-level air pressure on the engine during high thrust takeoff and in the extremely thin air at normal cruise level.
The new generation engines never "starve" for air and thus never dump half-unburned smoky fuel out the back. This increases the efficiency of the engine, produces more power and eliminates all the sooty oily black exhaust. You may remember that in the 1970s there were debates and articles about the problem of the unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons jets were spewing into the atmosphere and in the 1980s those debates went away because the unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons went away, thanks to the High Bypass Turbofan.
The primary outcomes of the invention of High Bypass Turbofan was to increase the efficiency of the jet engine which it did by a huge amount and to produce persistent contrails, now called "chemtrails." First generation jet engines were less than 20% efficient, and the High Bypass Turbofan made them more than 90% efficient! This means it took significantly less fuel to fly an airliner equipped with the High Bypass Turbofan from point A to B, thus a huge increase in profit for the airlines. Plus the same plane could now fly farther on the same tank of fuel. This is a substantial improvement and boon to the airline industry just by slapping a big ol fan on the front of the old jet engine. When this simple technique was discovered in the late 1970's all existing jet planes were quickly retrofited with a strap on modification to the front of the engines.
By the mid-1990s all old jets had been upgraded to the new engine configuration and all new planes coming off the assembly line were equipped with the most modern versions. But this new next generation of jet engines had one curious "side effect." They produced contrails that can persist for more than 24 to 36 hours! Condensation trails from first generation jet engines generally only lasted for about 10 or 20 minutes and then they disappeared. But these new "chemtrails" persist all day long and with 35,000 commercial flights in the US air lanes each day, these new persistent contrails produce numerous crisscrossing, tic-tac-toe patterns all over the sky. So, why do the new contrails now last all day long?
In the old-style sooty-exhaust jets, and even some old piston engine planes of WW II, the condensation of high altitude hot exhaust gases and atmospheric vapor caused by the passage of the aircraft produced freezing ice crystals which usually formed around tiny droplets of the oily exhaust soot particles. This was like a small dirty snowball with an oily spot at the center. These particles, broadly called aerosols, are droplets of sulfuric acid, specks of soot and other substances that serve as seeds called condensation nuclei. While it was proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to secretly add additional condensation nuclei to jet fuel to increase the reflectivity of the resultant clouds (to reflect more sunlight, and heat, back into space to mitigate global warming) there is absolutely no evidence (beyond alleged eyewitness reports anonymously posted to the Internet) that this has ever actually been done.
The black oily spot from the first generation engines quickly absorbed the heat from the sun and caused the ice crystal balls to melt within several minutes. When the ice crystals melt, they disappear. The old contrails usually only lasted for several minutes (although there were problems with persistent contrails during WWII that required bomber squadrons to take alternative return routes to base, and in 1953 a Navy weatherman wrote a book on the dangers of persistent contrails if commercial jet travel became popular).
The new ultra-clean exhaust of the next generation jet has no black oil spots in the center of the contrail ice crystal balls. The heat and light from the sun pass right through the clear ice crystals of these next generation contrails as if they were transparent. They do not absorb any solar heat and thus do not melt. They may remain frozen and persist, looking like long thin high cirrus clouds for 24 to 36 hours before they simply disperse but do not melt and disappear.
Ironically, technical advances in engine efficiency have resulted in jet engines that burn fuel more completely, thus combining more hydrogen with oxygen and yielding more water for contrail formation. New fuel was formulated to run cleaner in these new engines, producing the clear or white condensation nuclei that traps and holds the growing ice ball around them. Better engines also have resulted in cooler exhaust temperatures, making it easier for the contrails to form. Warmer global temperatures have also increased the amount of atmospheric moisture present (the warmer the air is, the more moisture it can hold) contributing to the production and persistence of contrails. Thus, the engines have changed, the fuel has change and the atmosphere itself has changed all of which contribute to the formation of persistent contrails, and all of this happened without the general public getting "the memo." The prospect of a hydrogen-fueled jet that would be environmentally clean (zero emissions) but would leave a massive contrail of water vapor would surely raise aesthetic questions if not charges of conspiracy!
"Chemtrails" theory then, is that "normal" jet aircraft contrails disappear in a few minutes, whereas "chemtrails" persist for hours, and therefore are not "normal" and must contain some covert element to make them persist. This, however, is based on ignorance of aviation technological advancement and a working knowledge of atmospheric physics neither of which were the general public kept abreast of by the mainstream media or public education. Persistent jet contrails can be entirely explained by science without having to resort to a "conspiracy theory" scenario. They appear to be no more than the natural result of the introduction of the hi-bypass turbo fan, improved jet fuel (JP-8) and "global warming.